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Java • Mockito vs EasyMock



Java, a widely-used programming language, has evolved significantly over the years, especially in the realm of testing. In this digital era, where software development is fast-paced and highly iterative, the importance of efficient and reliable testing frameworks cannot be overstated. Among the various tools and libraries available for Java developers, Mockito and EasyMock stand out as popular choices for unit testing.

Java • Mockito vs EasyMock

These frameworks are instrumental in simplifying the process of creating mock objects in unit tests. Mock objects are essential for testing the behavior of Java classes in isolation, especially when they interact with external systems or dependencies. The choice between Mockito and EasyMock often boils down to specific project requirements and personal preference, as each offers unique features and capabilities.

In the following sections, we’ll delve into a comprehensive comparison of Mockito and EasyMock. We’ll explore their core features, ease of use, performance, and scenarios where one might be more suitable than the other. This analysis aims to provide Java developers with the insights needed to make an informed decision when selecting a mocking framework for their projects.

Introduction to Mockito & EasyMock

In the world of Java development, testing is a critical component that ensures the reliability and quality of software. Two prominent frameworks that have gained traction for creating mock objects in unit testing are Mockito and EasyMock. Understanding these tools and their roles in Java testing is essential for developers looking to improve their testing strategies.

Quick Overview of Mockito

Mockito is a modern, open-source testing framework in Java that focuses on simplicity and ease of use. It is specifically designed for mock creation, verification, and stubbing in tests. One of the key strengths of Mockito is its straightforward and readable syntax, which makes writing tests more intuitive. Mockito allows developers to write clean and maintainable tests by providing clear and concise APIs. It is well-suited for tests where behavior verification is needed and is particularly popular for its ‘spy’ feature, which enables partial mocking of objects.

Here’s a short code example that provides a quick overview of Mockito:

import static org.mockito.Mockito.*;

// Create a mock object for a fictional UserService class
UserService userServiceMock = mock(UserService.class);

// Define an expected behavior for the mock
when(userServiceMock.getUserById(1)).thenReturn(new User("John"));

// Perform an action using the mock
User user = userServiceMock.getUserById(1);

// Verify that the mock was called with the expected method and argument

// Check the result
assertEquals("John", user.getName());

In this example, we create a mock object for a fictional UserService class using Mockito. We then define an expected behavior for the mock using the when method, specifying that when the getUserById method is called with an argument of 1, it should return a User object with the name “John.” We then use the mock to retrieve a user and verify that the getUserById method was called with the expected argument. Finally, we check the result to ensure it matches our expectations.

This code demonstrates the simplicity and ease of use of Mockito for creating mock objects and verifying their behavior in Java unit tests.

Quick Overview of EasyMock

EasyMock, another well-established framework in the Java ecosystem, is known for its ability to create dynamic mock objects. It operates on the principle of recording and replaying actions to validate the behavior of classes under test. EasyMock’s approach involves setting up expectations in a record phase and then switching to a replay phase to verify that the expected actions occur. This framework is often praised for its robustness in handling complex mocking scenarios and its compatibility with a wide range of testing environments.

Here’s a short code example that provides a quick overview of EasyMock:

import static org.easymock.EasyMock.*;

// Create a mock object for a fictional OrderService class
OrderService orderServiceMock = createMock(OrderService.class);

// Define an expected behavior for the mock
Order order = new Order(1, "Product A", 100.0);

// Switch to the replay phase

// Perform an action using the mock
Order result = orderServiceMock.getOrder(1);

// Verify that the mock was called with the expected method and argument

// Check the result
assertEquals(1, result.getId());
assertEquals("Product A", result.getProduct());
assertEquals(100.0, result.getPrice(), 0.01);

In this example, we create a mock object for a fictional OrderService class using EasyMock. We then define an expected behavior for the mock during the record phase, specifying that when the getOrder method is called with an argument of 1, it should return an Order object with specific attributes. After setting up the expectations, we switch to the replay phase using the replay method.

Next, we use the mock to retrieve an order, and finally, we verify that the getOrder method was called with the expected argument using the verify method. We also check the result to ensure it matches our expectations.

This code demonstrates EasyMock’s approach of recording and replaying actions to validate the behavior of classes under test, making it suitable for testing complex mocking scenarios in Java.

The Role of These Frameworks in Java Testing

Both Mockito and EasyMock play a crucial role in the Java testing landscape by simplifying the process of dealing with dependencies. They allow developers to isolate the class under test by replacing its dependencies with mock objects. This isolation is vital for unit testing, as it ensures that tests are not affected by external factors and that each test case verifies only the behavior of the unit under test. The choice between Mockito and EasyMock can influence the design and readability of test cases, as well as the overall testing experience. As such, understanding the nuances, strengths, and limitations of each framework is key to leveraging them effectively in Java testing strategies.

Core Features of Mockito

Mockito is a highly acclaimed framework in the Java community for its ability to simplify the process of mocking in unit tests. Here, we will explore some of the core features of Mockito, accompanied by Java code examples to demonstrate its practical application in testing.

Key Features of Mockito

  1. Simple Mock Creation: Mockito allows for the easy creation of mock objects for interfaces and classes, which is fundamental in unit testing.

  2. Argument Matchers: Mockito provides a variety of argument matchers to specify conditions under which method calls are considered valid.

  3. Behavior Driven Development (BDD) Support: Mockito supports BDD methodologies, allowing for more readable and maintainable tests.

  4. Verification of Interactions: It allows developers to verify the number and types of interactions that occur between objects.

  5. Exception Handling: Mockito can be used to simulate exceptions in order to test error handling logic.

  6. Spying on Real Objects: Mockito can create spies on real objects, where only specific behaviors are stubbed or verified.

Examples of Usage in Java Testing

Example 1: Simple Mock Creation

import static org.mockito.Mockito.*;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
import java.util.List;

public class SimpleMockTest {
    public void testMockCreation() {
        // Creating a mock object
        List<String> mockedList = mock(List.class);

        // Using the mock object

        // Verification

In this example, a mock of a List interface is created and used. The verify method checks whether the specified interactions (add and clear) have occurred.

Example 2: Argument Matchers

import static org.mockito.ArgumentMatchers.anyString;
import static org.mockito.Mockito.*;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

public class ArgumentMatcherTest {
    public void testArgumentMatcher() {
        List<String> mockedList = mock(List.class);

        // Using the mock with an argument matcher

        // Verification with the matcher

Here, anyString() is an argument matcher that matches any String. It’s useful when the exact argument value is not relevant for the test.

Example 3: Exception Handling

import static org.mockito.Mockito.*;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

public class ExceptionHandlingTest {
    public void testExceptionSimulation() {
        List<String> mockedList = mock(List.class);

        // Stubbing to throw an exception
        when(mockedList.get(0)).thenThrow(new RuntimeException());

        try {
        } catch (RuntimeException e) {
            // Exception handling logic here

This example shows how to stub a method to throw an exception, allowing the testing of exception handling logic.

Example 4: Spying on Real Objects

import static org.mockito.Mockito.*;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

public class SpyTest {
    public void testSpy() {
        List<String> list = new ArrayList<>();
        List<String> spyList = spy(list);

        // Using the spy to add an element

        // Verify method was called

        // Get the size using the real implementation
        assertEquals(2, spyList.size());

In this scenario, a spy is created on a real ArrayList object. The real method implementations are used, but specific interactions can still be stubbed or verified.

These examples demonstrate just a few of the powerful features offered by Mockito, illustrating its flexibility and utility in Java unit testing.

Core Features of EasyMock

EasyMock is another prominent framework in the Java testing landscape, known for its ability to create dynamic mock objects for effective unit testing. Below, we’ll explore the core features of EasyMock, complemented by Java code examples to illustrate how these features can be applied in real-world testing scenarios.

Key Features of EasyMock

  1. Record and Replay Model: EasyMock operates on a record-replay model, where you first record the expected behaviors and then replay to verify them during the test.

  2. Flexible Argument Matching: Like Mockito, EasyMock provides argument matchers for specifying conditions for method calls.

  3. Exception Handling: EasyMock allows for easy simulation of exceptions to test error handling.

  4. Mocking Interface and Classes: It can mock both interfaces and classes, giving a wide range of flexibility in testing various components.

  5. Integration with Testing Frameworks: EasyMock seamlessly integrates with popular testing frameworks like JUnit.

Examples of Usage in Java Testing

Example 1: Record and Replay Model

import static org.easymock.EasyMock.*;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

public class RecordAndReplayTest {
    public void testRecordAndReplay() {
        // Creating a mock object
        List<String> mockedList = createMock(List.class);

        // Recording expected behaviors

        // Using the mock object
        int size = mockedList.size();

        // Verification
        assertEquals(1, size);

This example shows the record-replay model of EasyMock. The expected behaviors (add and size) are recorded, and then the mock is used in the test, followed by verification.

Example 2: Argument Matchers

import static org.easymock.EasyMock.*;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

public class ArgumentMatcherTest {
    public void testArgumentMatcher() {
        List<String> mockedList = createMock(List.class);

        // Using matchers during recording phase

        // Using the mock object
        mockedList.add("any string");

        // Verification

In this example, anyString() is used to represent any string argument, demonstrating the flexibility of argument matchers in EasyMock.

Example 3: Exception Handling

import static org.easymock.EasyMock.*;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

public class ExceptionHandlingTest {
    public void testExceptionSimulation() {
        List<String> mockedList = createMock(List.class);

        // Expecting an exception
        expect(mockedList.get(0)).andThrow(new RuntimeException());

        try {
        } catch (RuntimeException e) {
            // Exception handling logic

        // Verification

This code demonstrates how to set up a mock to throw an exception, useful for testing how your code handles unexpected scenarios.

Example 4: Mocking Classes

import static org.easymock.EasyMock.*;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

public class MockingClassTest {
    public void testMockingClass() {
        // Mocking a class
        ArrayList<String> mockedList = createMock(ArrayList.class);

        // Setting expectations

        // Using the mock
        assertEquals(2, mockedList.size());

        // Verification

In this example, we demonstrate how to mock a class (ArrayList) instead of an interface, showcasing EasyMock’s capability to handle both.

These examples provide a glimpse into the versatility and functionality of EasyMock in Java testing, offering a comprehensive approach to creating mock objects and verifying interactions in unit tests.

Comparison Between Mockito and EasyMock

When it comes to Java unit testing, choosing the right mocking framework can significantly impact the efficiency and clarity of your tests. Mockito and EasyMock are two of the leading choices, each with its own strengths and nuances. Let’s compare them across several key aspects: ease of use and setup, syntax and readability, integration with other tools, and community support and documentation.

Ease of Use and Setup



Syntax and Readability



Integration with Other Java Tools and Frameworks



Community Support and Documentation



Comparison Summary

Both Mockito and EasyMock offer robust solutions for mocking in Java unit tests, but their approach and user experience differ. Mockito stands out for its ease of use and readability, making it a favorite among developers who prefer straightforward syntax and quick setup. EasyMock, with its explicit record-replay model, appeals to those who appreciate a more structured approach to mocking, especially useful in complex scenarios.

The choice between Mockito and EasyMock ultimately depends on personal preference, the specific requirements of your project, and your comfort with the testing framework’s style and capabilities. Both frameworks are capable tools in the Java developer’s arsenal, contributing significantly to the efficacy and clarity of unit tests.

Use Case Scenarios

Selecting between Mockito and EasyMock for your Java testing needs often depends on the specific use case scenario of your project. Each framework has its unique strengths that make it more suitable for certain types of testing environments and requirements. Let’s explore some scenarios where one might be more advantageous over the other, along with real-world examples.

When to Use Mockito

  1. For Simplicity and Quick Setup:
    • Scenario: If you’re working on a project where quick development and testing are crucial, and the mocking requirements are not exceedingly complex, Mockito is an excellent choice. Its straightforward setup and intuitive syntax make it ideal for rapid development cycles.
    • Example: In a web application where you need to mock service layer interactions for controller testing, Mockito allows for fast and readable mocks, speeding up the development process.
  2. Behavior-Driven Development (BDD):
    • Scenario: Mockito is particularly beneficial in projects that follow Behavior-Driven Development methodologies. Its syntax and annotations are conducive to writing tests that are more readable and aligned with business requirements.
    • Example: When writing tests for a user story in an Agile project, Mockito’s BDD-style mocks can align the tests closely with the acceptance criteria of the story.
  3. Partial Mocking (Spying):
    • Scenario: Mockito is preferable when you need to spy on real objects, i.e., when you want to mock certain behaviors of a class while keeping others unchanged.
    • Example: In a scenario where you’re testing a complex class but only need to mock certain external method calls, Mockito’s spying capabilities allow for partial mocking without needing to mock the entire object.

When to Use EasyMock

  1. For Complex Mocking Scenarios:
    • Scenario: EasyMock shines in situations where the mocking requirements are complex, especially when you need explicit control over the mock’s behavior across different phases of the test.
    • Example: In testing legacy systems where the interactions are intricate and you need to mock several layers of interactions precisely, EasyMock’s record and replay model offers the necessary control and granularity.
  2. Structured Approach to Mocking:
    • Scenario: Projects that benefit from a more structured and phased approach to mocking, such as enterprise-level applications with multiple dependencies, may find EasyMock more suitable.
    • Example: In an enterprise application with extensive service layers and DAOs (Data Access Objects), EasyMock can help define clear expectations and verifications for each layer’s interactions.
  3. Explicit Verification Phase:
    • Scenario: When the testing strategy emphasizes the importance of the verification phase separately from the setup or arrangement phase of the mock, EasyMock’s explicit separation of these phases is advantageous.
    • Example: In a banking application, where verifying the precise sequence of method calls and interactions is crucial, EasyMock’s distinct phases help ensure the accuracy and order of operations.

Summary for Use Case Scenarios

In summary, Mockito is often the go-to for quick, straightforward, and readable unit testing, especially in agile and rapid development environments. EasyMock, on the other hand, is more suited for complex scenarios where a structured approach to mocking and an explicit verification phase are required. Both frameworks have their places in the Java testing world, and the choice between them should be guided by the specific requirements and nuances of the project at hand.

Performance and Efficiency

Performance and efficiency are critical factors when choosing a mocking framework for Java unit testing, especially in large-scale and resource-intensive projects. Mockito and EasyMock, while similar in their fundamental purpose, exhibit different characteristics in terms of execution speed, resource usage, and scalability. Let’s compare these two frameworks from a performance and efficiency standpoint.

Execution Speed and Resource Usage



Scalability in Large Projects



Summary for Performance and Efficiency

In terms of performance and efficiency, Mockito generally offers faster execution and less resource consumption, making it a favorable choice in scenarios where these factors are prioritized. EasyMock, while slightly more resource-intensive, provides a level of control and precision that can be crucial in complex testing scenarios.

The scalability aspect also favors Mockito, particularly in large-scale projects where maintaining a large suite of tests with minimal overhead is important. EasyMock, on the other hand, could be more suited for projects where the complexity and detail of the interactions being tested are more critical than the sheer size of the test suite.

Ultimately, the choice between Mockito and EasyMock for performance and efficiency should be based on the specific needs of the project, considering factors like the complexity of tests, the scale of the project, and the resources available.


In the realm of Java unit testing, both Mockito and EasyMock offer powerful capabilities for creating mock objects, but they cater to slightly different needs and preferences. To conclude our discussion, let’s summarize the pros and cons of each framework and provide final recommendations based on various use cases.

Pros and Cons



Final Recommendations

  1. For Agile and Rapid Development Projects:
    • Recommendation: Mockito is the preferred choice for projects that require quick development cycles and highly readable tests, particularly useful in agile environments.
  2. For Complex Testing Environments:
    • Recommendation: EasyMock is better suited for projects where complex interactions need to be tested with a high level of detail and control.
  3. For Behavior-Driven Development:
    • Recommendation: Mockito, with its natural language-like syntax, aligns well with BDD practices, making it the go-to option.
  4. For Large-Scale Projects with a Focus on Performance:
    • Recommendation: Mockito, due to its performance efficiency and scalability, is more suitable for large projects where maintaining a vast number of tests with minimal overhead is crucial.
  5. For Educational Purposes or Simpler Use Cases:
    • Recommendation: Mockito’s simplicity and ease of use make it an excellent choice for educational environments or projects with simpler testing needs.

In conclusion, while both Mockito and EasyMock are competent and reliable for Java unit testing, the choice between them depends on specific project requirements, testing complexity, development methodology, and the team’s familiarity with the framework. Understanding the nuances of each and aligning them with your project’s needs will ensure effective and efficient testing.

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Java • AssertJ vs Hamcrest Assertion Frameworks
When working with testing frameworks like JUnit or TestNG, selecting the right assertion framework can significantly enhance the readability of your test code and improve the overall quality of your tests. Two of the most popular Java assertion frameworks are AssertJ and Hamcrest.
Java • Unit Testing Best Practices
Unit testing is a fundamental aspect of software development, ensuring that each individual unit of source code is thoroughly examined and validated for correctness. With Java being one of the most widely used programming languages, it is crucial to adhere to the best practices for unit testing in Java to maintain the integrity and performance of the software.
Logback for Beginners
Logback, a Java-based logging framework within the SLF4J (Simple Logging Facade for Java) ecosystem, is the preferred choice in the Java community, serving as an enhanced successor to the popular Log4j project. It not only carries forward the legacy of Log4j but also brings to the table a quicker implementation, more comprehensive configuration options, and enhanced flexibility for archiving old log files.
Java • Modern Looping And Filtering with Stream API
Java has constantly evolved since its inception, presenting developers with numerous tools and methods to make coding more efficient and readable. Among these are modern techniques for looping and filtering data.
Java • Converting Strings To List
When it comes to working with Java, converting strings into lists is a common and essential operation that can significantly enhance your data processing capabilities. Whether you’re a seasoned programmer or just starting, mastering this technique will prove to be invaluable in your coding endeavors.
Java var Best Practices
Java, with each release and update, continually evolves to simplify the developer’s journey while preserving its core tenets of readability and robustness. One of the notable introductions in Java 10 was the var keyword. As with most new features, it sparked debates and questions regarding its efficacy and best practices.
URI vs URL in Java
In the realm of Java and web development, the terms URL and URI often emerge in discussions, leaving some in a quagmire of confusion. This article aims to elucidate the disparities between the two, elucidating their syntax, utilization in Java, and the nuances that set them apart.
Java vs JavaScript • Which Is In More Demand?
Java and JavaScript, despite their similar names, serve distinct purposes within the realm of software development. As both languages continue to evolve and find niches in the modern tech landscape, it’s crucial to understand their differences and their respective market demands.
Java Cloning Strategies
Object copying is a fundamental aspect of Java programming, finding relevance and utility in diverse contexts. Whether it’s creating independent copies of objects, maintaining object state, or avoiding unintended side effects, understanding efficient and reliable cloning strategies is essential.
Java Comprehensive Guide
Java is a versatile programming language that has gained widespread popularity for its platform independence and robustness. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the various aspects of Java programming, covering essential concepts, tools, and best practices.
Java • Converting Strings To Map
This article discusses converting a string of key-value pairs that are delimited by a specific character, known as a delimiter, into a Map in Java.
Maven vs Gradle
Maven and Gradle are two of the most popular build automation tools for Java-based projects. Both tools are designed to simplify the build process, manage dependencies, and facilitate project organization.
Java 19 Virtual Threads
In this article, we will provide an overview of virtual threads in Java and their use in concurrent programming. We will define what virtual threads are and how they differ from normal threads. Additionally, we will discuss the benefits of virtual threads over traditional concurrency approaches and provide code examples to illustrate the differences between the two.
Decoupling Domain Objects: Simplifying System Architecture
When you design an object-oriented system from top to bottom, sometimes the objects that represent the “domain” (what the system is about) don’t match the objects that represent the “entities” (what the system stores). To solve this problem, you can use a technique called “decoupling” to separate the layers of objects.
Java Final Modifier
In Java, the final keyword (also known as a modifier) is used to mark a variable, method, or class as immutable, meaning its value or behavior cannot be modified once it has been initialized.
Java Records
A Java record is a new feature introduced in Java 14 that allows developers to create a class that is primarily used to store data. A record is essentially a concise way to define a class that consists mainly of state (fields) and accessors (getters).
Java 17 Features
JDK 17, introduces several new features and improvements, including enhanced random number generators, new encoding-specific methods for the String class, and default classes for Java ciphers. It also removes the experimental AOT and JIT compilers, and introduces support for Sealed Classes and Records. These changes provide developers with more flexibility and control, making it easier to write efficient and secure Java applications.
Java Optional - Why Developers Prefer Optional Values
This article discusses the use of Java Optional to introduce optional values instead of null. We will deep dive into understanding why developers prefer the Optional class to clearly communicate an optional value as opposed to a vague null representation of a variable.
Java • Int to String Conversion Guide
In Java, often times the ability to return a string representing the specified integer is a common task. This article illustrates several mechanisms to convert int to a string in Java. In the opposite scenario, the means to resolve an integer representing the value of the specified String. The returned value is an Integer object that is the equivalent integer value of the argument string.
Java • Double to String Conversion | Beginner's Guide
Converting double to a String value in Java has been a typical task to do for software development. This article discusses the various ways on how to convert a double to a string in Java. While there are advantages in representing a double to its String object representation, the opposite task of converting a String object to a double can also be addressed. This document examines the reasons why conversions of double in Java are beneficial for beginners who are learning to develop in java.
Setting Java Compiler Version in Maven
This document demonstrates ways to set the java compiler version in maven via the maven.compiler.target property and the maven-compiler-plugin configuration section.
Getting Started with Maven Build System in Java Projects
The following page will illustrate how to get started with the maven build system in your java projects.  Use this guide as a reference when using Maven for the very first time.
Getting Started With Java
The following page will illustrate how to get started with the Java Programming Language.  In addition, this document provides an overview of how to install java and the environment variables you will need to set.  A hands-on approach illustrates how to compile and run your first Hello World java code.
Getting Started With Gradle
The following page will be an excellent guide with getting started with the gradle build system in your Java™ projects.  Use this guide as a reference when using Gradle as a build system for the very first time.