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Java • AssertJ vs Hamcrest Assertion Frameworks



When working with testing frameworks like JUnit or TestNG, selecting the right assertion framework can significantly enhance the readability of your test code and improve the overall quality of your tests. Two of the most popular Java assertion frameworks are AssertJ and Hamcrest. In this article, we will provide an in-depth comparison of these two frameworks, highlighting their respective features, strengths, and examples of how to implement them in your test cases.

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AssertJ Assertion Framework

AssertJ is a powerful and flexible Java library designed to enhance the readability of your test code by providing a rich set of assertion methods. These methods allow you to write more concise and human-readable assertions for your tests.

Features of AssertJ

  1. Fluent API - AssertJ provides a fluent API that makes it easy to chain multiple assertions together, creating a more readable and concise test case.
  2. Custom Assertions - With AssertJ, you can create custom assertions tailored to your specific needs, providing greater flexibility in your test cases.
  3. Wide Range of Assertions - AssertJ is renowned for its extensive array of assertions, meticulously designed to cater to various data types and testing needs. It provides a comprehensive set of assertions for common data types like objects, arrays, lists, and maps, as well as for more complex data structures.
  4. Detailed Error Messages - AssertJ generates good error messages that help to quickly identify the cause of a failed test.
  5. Allows for custom error messages - enables developers to create personalized error messages that are specific to each test case
  6. String Substitutions - Supports string substitutions in error messages, providing a more flexible and tailored approach to communicating test failures.

Example of AssertJ

Consider a scenario where you need to validate that a list of strings contains specific elements:

List<String> languages = Arrays.asList("Java", "Python", "C++");


Hamcrest Assertion Framework

Hamcrest is another popular Java assertion framework known for its use of matcher objects to create readable assertions. This framework is also compatible with JUnit and TestNG, and provides a different approach to writing assertions.

Features of Hamcrest

  1. Matcher Objects - Hamcrest uses matcher objects to create expressive and readable assertions.
  2. Composability - Hamcrest allows you to compose multiple matcher objects together to create more complex assertions.
  3. Wide Range of Matchers - Hamcrest provides a wide range of predefined matcher objects that can be used to validate different types of data.
  4. Custom Assertions - With Hamcrest, you have the ability to craft custom assertions that are precisely aligned with your unique requirements.
  5. Allows for custom error messages - enables developers to create personalized error messages that are specific to each test case

Example of Hamcrest

In the same scenario as before, you can use Hamcrest to validate the list of strings as follows:

List<String> languages = Arrays.asList("Java", "Python", "C++");

assertThat(languages, hasSize(3));
assertThat(languages, hasItem("Java"));
assertThat(languages, not(hasItem("Ruby")));

Ease of Use With IDEs

When it comes to integration with IDEs (Integrated Development Environments), both Hamcrest and AssertJ provide a user-friendly experience, but there are some differences in how they operate that may influence your choice.


Hamcrest requires you to static import individual assertions, which means you need to know the name of the specific assertion you want to use. This can sometimes make it less convenient, especially if you are unfamiliar with all the available assertions.

Example of using Hamcrest with static import:

import static org.hamcrest.MatcherAssert.assertThat;
import static org.hamcrest.Matchers.*;
import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertEquals;

List<String> languages = Arrays.asList("Java", "Python", "C++");

// Hamcrest assertion
assertThat(languages, hasSize(3));

// JUnit 5 assertion
assertEquals(3, languages.size());

// Additional Hamcrest example
assertThat(languages, contains("Java", "Python", "C++"));

Note that the Hamcrest version of assertThat(arg1, arg2) is not designed to be fluent like the AssertJ or other testing libraries, which may affect the readability and ease of chaining multiple assertions together.


On the other hand, AssertJ simplifies this process by requiring you to only static import the Assertions class. Once you’ve done this, you can use the assertThat(actual) method, and the IDE will automatically trigger the available methods when you type a period. This autocompletion feature makes it easier to discover and use the various assertions provided by AssertJ.

Example of using AssertJ with static import:

import static org.assertj.core.api.Assertions.*;

List<String> languages = Arrays.asList("Java", "Python", "C++");

Comparison of Assertion Failure Messages

When a test fails, the output of the assertion failure message is crucial for quickly identifying the cause of the failure. Here, we will compare the output of an assertion failure message in both Hamcrest and AssertJ.


Hamcrest provides clear and concise failure messages that describe what was expected and what was actually received. However, some developers find that these messages can sometimes be a bit limited in detail.

Example of a Hamcrest assertion failure message:

Expected: is <3>
     but: was <2>


AssertJ, on the other hand, is known for providing detailed and informative failure messages that help to quickly pinpoint the cause of a failed test.

Example of an AssertJ assertion failure message:

to be equal to:
but was not.

As seen from the examples above, both Hamcrest and AssertJ provide clear failure messages, but AssertJ tends to offer more detailed and helpful information. This detailed output can be particularly beneficial when debugging complex tests with multiple assertions, as it can help you quickly understand what went wrong and where to look to fix the issue.

Customizing Error Messages in Assertions

An important aspect to consider when choosing an assertion framework is the ability to customize error messages, and whether the framework supports string substitutions within these messages. Custom error messages are crucial as they provide clear and specific feedback when a test fails, making it easier to understand the context and cause of the failure.


AssertJ shines in this aspect as it allows you to provide custom error messages for each assertion, and it supports string substitutions, making your error messages more informative and tailored to your specific test cases.

Example of AssertJ custom error message with string substitution:

import static org.assertj.core.api.Assertions.assertThat;

public class CustomErrorMessageTest {
  public void testName() {
    String name = "Alice";
      .overridingErrorMessage("Expected name to be Bob, but was %s", name)

In this example, if the test fails, it will display the message “Expected name to be Bob, but was Alice”.


Hamcrest also allows for custom error messages, but it doesn’t directly support string substitutions in the same way that AssertJ does.

Example of Hamcrest custom error message:

import static org.hamcrest.MatcherAssert.assertThat;
import static org.hamcrest.Matchers.equalTo;

public class CustomErrorMessageTest {
  public void testName() {
    String name = "Alice";
    assertThat("Expected name to be Bob", name, equalTo("Bob"));

In this case, if the test fails, it will display the message “Expected name to be Bob”.

To sum up, both AssertJ and Hamcrest allow for custom error messages, but AssertJ takes it a step further by also supporting string substitutions within these messages, offering a more flexible and powerful way to communicate the context of test failures.

Writing Custom Assertions

The ability to write custom assertions is a powerful feature that allows developers to create more expressive and domain-specific tests. Both Hamcrest and AssertJ offer this capability, but there are some differences in their approach and ease of implementation.


In Hamcrest, custom assertions are created by implementing a matcher class. This allows you to define the specific behavior and failure message for your assertion. However, this process can sometimes be more involved and require more boilerplate code compared to AssertJ.

Example of a custom Hamcrest assertion:

import org.hamcrest.Description;
import org.hamcrest.TypeSafeMatcher;

public class IsEven extends TypeSafeMatcher<Integer> {
  protected boolean matchesSafely(Integer number) {
    return number % 2 == 0;

  public void describeTo(Description description) {
    description.appendText("an even number");

Usage of custom Hamcrest assertion:

import static org.hamcrest.MatcherAssert.assertThat;
import static org.example.IsEven.isEven;

public class CustomAssertionTest {
  public void testIsEven() {
    assertThat(4, isEven());


AssertJ takes a slightly different approach to custom assertions by providing a fluent API that makes it easier to chain together multiple conditions. This results in less boilerplate code and more readable tests.

Example of a custom AssertJ assertion:

import org.assertj.core.api.AbstractIntegerAssert;

public class IntegerAssert extends AbstractIntegerAssert<IntegerAssert, Integer> {
  public IntegerAssert(Integer actual) {
    super(actual, IntegerAssert.class);

  public IntegerAssert isEven() {
    if (actual % 2 != 0) {
      failWithMessage("Expected an even number but was <%s>", actual);
    return this;

Usage of custom AssertJ assertion:

import static org.example.IntegerAssert.assertThat;

public class CustomAssertionTest {
  public void testIsEven() {

In conclusion, while both Hamcrest and AssertJ provide the ability to create custom assertions, AssertJ tends to offer a more straightforward and flexible approach that can lead to more readable and maintainable tests.

In conclusion, while both frameworks are designed to be user-friendly and integrate well with IDEs, AssertJ has a slight edge in terms of ease of use due to its simpler static import process and the helpful autocompletion feature that assists developers in finding the right assertions for their tests.

AssertJ vs Hamcrest: Which to Choose?

The choice between AssertJ and Hamcrest largely depends on personal preference and the specific requirements of your project. Here are some crucial differences that could help guide your decision:

  1. Fluent API
    • AssertJ offers a fluent and chainable API, frequently resulting in test cases that are more concise and readable.
  2. Custom Assertions
    • Both AssertJ and Hamcrest provide the functionality to create custom assertions. However, AssertJ typically has a more straightforward approach, which often means less boilerplate code.
  3. Matcher Objects
    • Hamcrest is praised for its expressive matcher objects, which enhance the readability of assertions. Hamcrest’s expressive language helps in writing tests that read more like natural language, which can be particularly beneficial when working in a team or when you need to share your test results with non-technical stakeholders.
  4. Error Messages
    • AssertJ is reputed for producing detailed error messages, aiding significantly in debugging failed tests.
  5. String Substitutions in Error Messages
    • AssertJ supports string substitutions in custom error messages, adding an extra layer of flexibility and clarity when communicating test failures.

Each framework has its own strengths and weaknesses, and the best choice depends on your specific needs and preferences.

Ultimately, the decision of which assertion framework to choose—be it AssertJ or Hamcrest—rests in the hands of the development team. It is important for the team to carefully evaluate the specific needs of their project, the familiarity of team members with the framework, and the workflow that they are comfortable with.

Each framework has its own unique features and benefits, and what works for one team might not necessarily be the best fit for another. Therefore, it is crucial for teams to weigh the pros and cons, experiment with both options if possible, and then make an informed decision that aligns with their project requirements and team dynamics.

In Conclusion

Both AssertJ and Hamcrest are exceptional Java assertion frameworks that serve to improve the readability and quality of your test cases, albeit in different ways. AssertJ stands out with its fluent API and the flexibility it offers in creating custom assertions, while Hamcrest shines with its expressive matcher objects and extensive range of predefined matchers. The decision to choose one over the other ultimately lies with the development team, taking into consideration their project requirements, workflow, and personal preferences. Each framework has its own merits and can significantly enhance the testing experience when utilized effectively.

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